Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods

Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods is a topic covered in the CDC Yellow Book.

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Because vector control programs vary in coverage and effectiveness, travel health practitioners should advise travelers to use repellents and other general protective measures against biting arthropods. Although prophylactic drugs are available to protect against malaria, the effectiveness is variable depending on patterns of drug resistance, bioavailability, and compliance with medication. And while vaccines are available for diseases such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis, there are no available vaccines or chemoprophylaxis for other mosquitoborne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, filariasis, and West Nile encephalitis; for tickborne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tickborne encephalitis, and relapsing fever; for sand fly–borne diseases such as visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis; and for black fly–borne diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness).

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates repellent products in the United States. CDC recommends that consumers use only those repellent products registered by the EPA. Registration indicates that the EPA has determined that the product is both efficacious and safe for human use, when applied according to the instructions on the label.

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Because vector control programs vary in coverage and effectiveness, travel health practitioners should advise travelers to use repellents and other general protective measures against biting arthropods. Although prophylactic drugs are available to protect against malaria, the effectiveness is variable depending on patterns of drug resistance, bioavailability, and compliance with medication. And while vaccines are available for diseases such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis, there are no available vaccines or chemoprophylaxis for other mosquitoborne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, filariasis, and West Nile encephalitis; for tickborne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tickborne encephalitis, and relapsing fever; for sand fly–borne diseases such as visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis; and for black fly–borne diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness).

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates repellent products in the United States. CDC recommends that consumers use only those repellent products registered by the EPA. Registration indicates that the EPA has determined that the product is both efficacious and safe for human use, when applied according to the instructions on the label.

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